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  1. Various methods to prevent pregnancy and possible STIs have already been marketed: the pill, the contraceptive patch, ...

Contraceptives without medication or physical barrier

  1. Periodic abstinence A woman is fertile for 24 to 48 hours, while a man's sperm cells can survive for up to 72 hours. With periodic abstinence, the woman keeps an accurate record of her fertile period, that way she knows when she can and cannot have a joint relationship. This period can be trusted especially when the woman has a very regular cycle. The greatest safety is achieved shortly after menstruation and well before the next menstruation.

Temperature method

  1. The woman carefully records her temperature every morning before getting up and puts it on a graph. She will notice that just before ovulation there is a slight increase in temperature. This is approximately 14 days before the menstrual period. That way she also knows when she is fertile and not. After 14 days, the temperature remains at the same level, which means that she is pregnant, or the temperature drops again after 14 days and she has her period. It is also only reliable when the woman has a very regular menstrual cycle. Obviously this is a very small increase in temperature, about 0.3 to 0.6.

The fern test with the uterine mucus

  1. When the woman is not fertile, the mucus from the vagina is not 'stretchy'. This means that if you hold a little uterine mucus between your thumb and index finger, it will not make a long thread. The slime is rather gritty. The closer to the fertile period, the more stretchy the mucus. One can then pull a long thread between thumb and index finger.

Contraceptives with mechanical barrier

  1. Condom

Diaphragm or diaphragm

  1. An object to be inserted into the vagina or uterine cavity, including metal, rubber or plastic.

Chemical barrier contraceptives

  1. Spermicides (also called spermicides)

Intrauterine Agents

  1. These are contraceptives that have to be placed in the uterine cavity, ie the IUD.

Types of IUDs:

  1. Grafenberg: a silver ring, 1 of the first IUDs. Lip scraps: copper IUDs (copper affects the sperm cells, copper is said to kill the sperm cells.) Without a solid skeleton (so more flexible): less pain and / or abnormal blood loss. IUD with hormone in it: T-shape and a residue with hormone. This IUD acts on the endometrium (this is the lining of the womb) to prevent a fertilized egg from implanting.

Mechanism of action of the classic IUD

  1. Due to the foreign body, there are more leukocytes in the uterine cavity. This prevents a fertilized egg from implanting in the endometrium (so with an IUD fertilization can take place, but it prevents implantation).

Hormonal contraception

  1. Species: Oral:


  1. Very good, provided they take place regularly, the intake time must be respected. It should not be forgotten. With any other medication (such as certain antibiotics) it is best to use additional contraceptives (such as a condom) as certain antibiotics can slow down the effect of the pill, among other things. Also in case of diarrhea and vomiting it is recommended to use an additional contraceptive when taking the pill.

Side Effects:

  1. The woman may gain weight, suffer from headaches that she did not have before and have a decreased libido.


  1. For women, sterilization is more difficult or even impossible to restore because the fallopian tube is interrupted or blocked. Sterilization can be repaired for men.

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