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Which blood groups are there?

  1. The human body contains approximately 5 liters of blood, depending on the size of the individual. However, the composition of the blood is not the same for everyone. That's why everyone has a different blood type.

  1. An individual's blood type depends on which genes were passed on from their mother or father.

  1. The best known way of grouping blood groups is through the ABO system, although there are other groups as well.

  1. Within the ABO group there are four main categories divided into eight common blood groups: A, B, O and AB.

What is actually a blood group?

  1. The ABO system is the best known way of grouping human blood groups.

  2. The ABO system is the best known way to group human blood groups.

  1. Blood is made up of cells and a yellow aqueous liquid known as plasma. The blood type depends on what each part of the blood contains.

  1. The two major blood group systems are ABO antigens and Rhesus antigens (including RhD antigen). These two antigens are used to classify the blood groups.

  1. Bacteria and viruses normally carry an antigen. During an infection, their antigen marks them as something foreign to the body or as something not usually found in the body.

  1. Most red blood cell antigens are protein molecules found on the surface of the red blood cells.

  1. White blood cells produce antibodies as an immune defense. These antibodies will target the antigens and attack the foreign object, such as the bacteria.

  1. Cross-matching of blood groups is vital. For example, if a person receives red blood cells with antigens that are not normally present in their system, their body will reject and attack the new red blood cells.

  1. This can cause a serious and potentially life-threatening reaction.

  1. The ABO blood group system is used to determine the different types of antigens in the red blood cells and antibodies in the plasma.

  1. This system and RhD antigen status determine which blood type matches in order to ensure a safe red blood cell transfusion.

  1. There are four ABO groups:

  1. Some red blood cells have Rh factor, also called RhD antigen.

  2. Some red blood cells have the Rh factor, also called RhD antigen.

  1. Rhesus grouping adds another dimension.

  1. If the red blood cells contain the RhD antigen, they are RhD positive. If they don't, they are RhD negative.

  1. This means that there are eight major blood groups in the ABO / RhD blood group system. Some of these are more common than others.

  1. The eight major blood groups are A, B, O or AB and each type can be positive or negative.

  1. About 82% of the population has RhD positive blood. The rarest blood type is AB negative.

  1. O negative blood contains no A or B or RhD antigens. These red blood cells can be transfused to almost all patients of any blood group. Group O-negative is known as the 'universal donor' type.

  2. O negative blood does not contain A or B or RhD antigens. These red blood cells can be transfused to almost all patients of any blood group. Group O negative is known as the 'universal donor' type.

  1. In contrast, AB positive blood does not contain anti-A / anti-B / RhD antibodies, so patients with this blood type can therefore receive almost any type of red blood cell transfusion. This type is therefore referred to as the "universal receiver" type.

  1. It is important to confirm a person's blood type when donating blood or receiving a transfusion.

  1. If someone with group B antigen receives red blood cells from someone with group A antigen, their body will refuse the transfusion.

  1. This is because patients with B antigen on their red blood cells have an anti-A antibody in their plasma. The anti-A antibody in the plasma then attacks and destroys the red blood cells of the A antigen donor. This can be fatal.

  1. During pregnancy, a mother can have a different RhD type from her fetus because a fetus can inherit a different blood type through the genes from the father. There is some risk if the mother is RhD negative and the fetus is RhD positive.

  1. Blood tests are important during pregnancy and essential when donating or receiving a transfusion.

  1. Although age is still the most important risk factor when considering fertility problems, multiple studies have found a link between a woman's blood type and the reproductive system. One study showed that women with blood group O are twice as likely to have reduced ovulation and poorer egg quality than other blood types.

  1. The study followed more than 560 women undergoing fertility treatment and it also found that women with blood group A were better protected against decreasing egg counts over time. The researchers measured the level of the reproductive hormone FSH in the women and also took other fertility factors into account, such as age and BMI. Women with blood group O were more likely to have higher FSH levels, indicating a low ovarian reserve.

  1. Risk: Type AB and A

  1. The risks continue for type AB. One study found that people with blood group AB are about 26% more likely to develop stomach cancer than people with type B or O. People with type A are 20% more likely to develop cancer than people with type B or O. research followed more than a million people for a period of 35 years and found that people with type A or AB are also more vulnerable to the risks of other factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

  1. This is due to a bacterium called H. pylori, which lives in the intestines of roughly two-thirds of the world's population. Edgren believes that people with type A or AB are more sensitive to the bacteria and an increased immune system response can lead to a greater risk of stomach cancer.

  1. Risk: Type AB, A and B

  1. People with blood group O run less risk of heart disease than people with the other blood types. On the other hand, people with blood group AB have a 23% increased risk of developing heart disease, while type B has 11% and type A 5% increased risk. Researchers think this may be due to the correlation between blood group AB and blood clots, as well as higher inflammation rates that are also linked to type AB and B blood types.

  1. The study analyzed more than 77,000 people for two decades and showed that type O happiness may be associated with a specific chemical it contains, which stimulates and aids blood flow in preventing blood clots.

  1. Risk: Type AB, A and B

  1. More good news for the people with O because they discovered that people with blood group O are 37% less likely to develop pancreatic cancer than people with the other blood types. As with the link with stomach cancer, researchers believe it may be due to the gut bacteria H. pylori. The study found that the blood type antigens A and B actually help the bacteria survive. Because people with type O do not carry antigens, they have a reduced risk for these growing bacteria.

  1. Risk: Type A O

  1. The blood group antigens also determine how much of the stress hormone cortisol is released. This means that the blood group determines how people respond to stress. For example, people with blood group A naturally release higher levels of cortisol and also produce more in response to stressful situations than the other blood types. While people with blood group O can produce less cortisol than type A, they are susceptible to the overproduction of adrenaline in times of stress, causing a 'fight or flight response'. This makes it more difficult for people with type O to clear the cortisol from their system.

  1. That's why the way you deal with stress is extremely important. When it comes to exercise, people with blood group A should seek out low-intensity calm activities such as yoga or tai chi. Because of their high levels of adrenaline, people with type O benefit more from intense exercise such as running or kickboxing.

Finally: Is there blue blood?

  1. King Alexander and Queen Maxima, and even their children, just have red blood. And just like humans, most animals just have red blood. However, there are a few exceptions:

  1. Some species such as the octopus, squid and crustaceans have blue blood. Their blood contains a high concentration of copper. When copper mixes with oxygen, their blood turns blue.

  1. Blue and red are not the only possible blood colors - some animals bleed green.

  1. The skink, a kind of lizard, has green blood due to an accumulation of biliverdin. Biliverdin and bilirubin are liver byproducts. Humans also produce these two by-products.

  1. The human body sends biliverdin and bilirubin to the intestines and so it can be excreted through the digestive system. Skinks do not excrete biliverdin, causing it to accumulate in the blood and turn it green.



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